Jeffrey B. Henriques - Recent Publications


Title: Students who aren't prepared for college find less value in books and lecture than students who are prepared.

Authors: Jeffrey B. Henriques, and Lyrissa I. Kusse

Journal:International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 5, (2011)


Students in three sections of introductory psychology, N = 1051, were asked about the utility of traditional, e.g. instructor, lectures and textbook, and nontraditional, e.g., clickers, podcasts and online lecture slides, teaching tools. Students who felt unprepared for college (25.9%) differed from their peers in their perceived utility of these tools. Both groups of students reported that novel teaching tools were less helpful than traditional teaching tools and while there was no group difference in the perceived usefulness of the novel tools, underprepared students found traditional teaching tools to be less helpful than did prepared students. When the individual tools were used to predict the amount of self-reported learning gains in these students, it was the traditional teaching tools that accounted for the greater proportion of variability in overall learning. These results suggest that, rather than adding new approaches to their teaching, instructors could best assist their underprepared students by helping them learn to make better use of traditional teaching tools.

Title: Support for the validity and reliability of a 6-Item state anxiety scale derived from the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory.

Authors: Audrey Tluczek, Jeffrey B. Henriques, and Roger L. Brown

Journal: Journal of Nursing Measurement, 17, 19-28. (2009).


Identifying the most efficient and theoretically appropriate methods to assess patient anxiety in fast-paced medical environments may be beneficial for clinical purposes as well as for research. The purpose of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of two previously published six-item versions of the State Form of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and to identify the version that would be most appropriate to use with a sample of parents who had infants with normal or abnormal newborn screens. Retaining the 2-factor model (anxiety present or absent) used in the original 20-item version, Chlan, Savik, & Weinert (2003) found the 20-item scale to be highly correlated with their version (r=.92) and a factor analysis of individual items showed correlation coefficients ranging from .75 to .83. Marteau and Bekker (1992) also found their scale to be highly correlated with the original form (r=.95) and factor analysis of individual items was within an acceptable range (.53 to .71). In the current study, confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to evaluate the fit of the two six-item forms with STAI data collected at three time points from 288 parents of 150 infants. Study groups were based upon infant newborn screens and subsequent diagnostic testing to include cystic fibrosis (CF; n=26), congenital hypothyroidism (CH; n=39, CF Carriers (CF-C; n=45), and healthy (H; n=40). The results showed the Marteau and Bekker (1992) version to be a better fitting model across all three time points, and it had stronger internal consistency than the Chlan, Savik, & Weinert (2003) version. Both short forms were strongly correlated with the 20-item STAI score, all r’s > .90. It was concluded that the Marteau and Bekker (1992) six-item version of the State Anxiety scale was a valid and reliable instrument for this study sample.


Title: Suicide ideation among later elementary school aged youth.

Authors: Susan K. Riesch, G Jacobson, L Sawdey, J Anderson, & Jeffrey Henriques

Journal: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 15, 263-277. (2008).


Suicide is extremely rare among persons under age 15 years old. Nationwide, it has been reported that 18% of students in grade 6 had thoughts of killing themselves. The Social Disintegration Model (SDM) summarizes intra-personal, interpersonal, peer network, physical and heath risk behaviour characteristics that may influence suicide ideation. As part of a larger study to test a family strengthening programme, 179 later elementary school children from two cities responded to 20 items about their participation in health risk behaviour. Sixteen youth indicated they had thought of killing themselves. Based on the SDM, these 16 youth were compared with the larger sample on measures of ways of coping; family communication, functioning and caring; school connectedness, pubertal development; and alcohol use and weapon carrying. Youth who responded positively to the 'thought of killing self' screening question, felt less connected to their school, used more internalizing behaviours and reported less cohesion, open communication, supervision and family caring than youth who answered no. Youth who thought of killing themselves may benefit from additional school support to feel more comfortable and connected at school. Community resources may help parents modify child-rearing behaviours. Building communication among parents and youth may prevent suicidal behaviour among young adolescents.

Presented Papers:

Title: Dude, Where's my A? Examining slacker attitudes.

Authors: Jeffrey B. Henriques

Presented at the January, 2018 annual meeting of the National Institute on the Teaching of Psychology, St. Petersburg Beach, FL.


Faculty often report frustration with their students’ low motivation and lack of responsibility for their own learning. To evaluate these subjective impressions, students’ attitudes were assessed by way of anonymous end-of-semester course evaluations over the course of 13 years. Students were identified as having a “slacker” attitude if they failed to disagree with all the following statements: “I believe students should be able to do well in this course without attending class;” “I believe students should be able to do well in this course without reading the textbook;” and “I used the lecture content posted online in order to skip class.” Of the 7992 students who responded, 45.2% (n = 3,615) failed to disagree with at least one of these statements. The percentage of students failing to reject these slacker attitudes has fluctuated over time. Most notably, there has been an increase in the proportion of students who believe they should be successful without reading the textbook, exceeding more than 40% of respondents over the past four years. Slacker students reported more frequent texting and emailing during class than their non-slacker peers. By their own self-report, slackers learn significantly less, anticipate receiving lower grades, are less likely to feel the instructor cares about their learning, and feel more isolated from their classmates than their non-slacker peers. It may be helpful if students recognized the connections between their attitudes, behaviors, learning, and performance, though that may be a challenging message for instructors to get across.

Title: With clickers, it’s the questions and not the technology that lead to learning.

Authors: Jeffrey B. Henriques & Amanda Boris

Presented at the January, 2011 annual meeting of the National Institute on the Teaching of Psychology, St. Petersburg Beach, FL.


While student feedback on the use of clickers in the classroom has been positive, evidence in the literature of their impact on test performance has been mixed. The utilization of clickers and more specifically how often they were used and their impact on test performance was examined from 5796 students across 19 sections of introductory psychology over an 8 year period of time.  Examination of class performance within ten classes using (n = 3171) or nine classes not using clickers (n = 2625) failed to show any difference in students’ grades across groups, F(1, 5794) = .01, ns.  However, test performance in sections where clicker concept questions were used frequently (n = 1701) revealed a significant improvement in grades, mean = 73.48 (sd = 11.20) compared to sections which used these types of questions less regularly (n = 1421), mean = 70.78 (sd = 11.16), F(1, 3120) = 45.13, p < .001. Results support the hypothesis that while clickers are useful tools for student learning, it is the quizzing effect reflected in the number of questions asked, and not the device itself, that has a positive impact on test scores.

Title: Unprepared students don't value lectures or textbooks.

Authors: Lyrissa Kusse & Jeffrey B. Henriques

Presented at the January, 2011 annual meeting of the National Institute on the Teaching of Psychology, St. Petersburg Beach, FL.


Colleges and universities are admitting a greater diversity of students, and not all incoming students have received the same academic preparation in their high school educations. Students in four sections of introductory psychology, across three semesters, N = 1170, were asked about the utility of traditional teaching tools, e.g. lectures, textbook, pace of class, and instructor, and nontraditional teaching tools, e.g., podcasts, clickers, and online resources, such as lecture slides and review quizzes.  Additionally, students were asked whether they felt that their high school education had adequately prepared them for college learning.  Almost one quarter of students (24.8%, n = 290) reported that they felt that high school had not adequately prepared them for college. The students’ perceived average utility of traditional and nontraditional teaching tools was examined by way of a two-way Group (Prepared/Unprepared) X Tool (Traditional/Nontraditional) analysis of variance (ANOVA). There was no difference in the perceived utility of the nontraditional teaching tools between the two groups of students.  There was, however, a significant difference in students’ ratings of traditional teaching tools.  Students who felt unprepared for college found these tools to be less helpful than their peers who felt prepared for college work. These results suggest that faculty could help underprepared students be more successful by providing instruction on to make better use of traditional instructional methods such as how to identify key points from lectures and textbooks rather than adding new technology into their teaching. 

Title: Clickers: It’s the questions, not the technology, that matter

Authors: Jeffrey B. Henriques

Presented at The University of Wisconsin System 2010 President’s Summit on Excellence in Teaching and Learning, Madison, WI.


Clickers allow students to respond to questions and get immediate feedback during class. While students report that clickers aid in learning, the presenter will consider the performance of over 5,000 students across an eightyear period showing no difference between sections using clickers and sections where they did not. When use of clicker technology was optional, students who did not have a clicker performed better than students who used their clickers in less than half of class meetings. Additionally, both groups performed worse than students who used clickers more regularly, suggesting clickers merely reflect the benefits of class attendance.

Title:  Much like broccoli, review quizzes are good for students but unpopular

Authors: Jeffrey B. Henriques & Wei Wen

Presented at the January, 2010 annual meeting of the National Institute on the Teaching of Psychology, St. Petersburg Beach, FL.


Research indicates that frequent testing can increase student success. We compared the performance and attitudes of two groups of freshman enrolled in the first authorís introductory psychology classes. One section of students, n = 346, was required to complete topic review quizzes throughout the semester. The other section of students, n = 199, had the option of completing these same review quizzes but were not required to do so. We compared studentsí exam performance in the two sections on each of the four exams while controlling for group differences in college entrance exam scores. In addition, we examined the number of quizzes attempted, average quiz score, and studentsí end of semester course evaluations. Students in the required review (RR) quiz section completed more quizzes and attained higher quiz grades than the students in the optional review (OR) quiz section. As predicted, test results revealed that the RR students performed better across the four exams than the OR students. Furthermore, there was a significant Section X Exam interaction, which was the result of a steady increase in performance across exams for the RR students while OR students did not show improvement until the fourth and final exam. Similar effects were found for the subset of matched test items. Much to our surprise, we found that students in the RR section rated the review quizzes as significantly less helpful than their counterparts in the OR section. So while practice may lead to improved success, students cannot necessarily recognize its potential benefits.

Title:  Prepared and underprepared students view teaching tools differently

Author: Jeffrey B. Henriques

Presented at the April, 2009 annual UW System OPID meeting, Milwaukee, WI.


Students in two sections of introductory psychology, N = 615, were asked about the utility of traditional, e.g. lectures and textbook, and nontraditional, e.g., clickers, and online resources teaching tools. Students, who felt unprepared for college (23.6%), differed from their peers in their perceived utility of these tools. While there was no group difference in the usefulness of the novel tools, underprepared students found traditional tools to be less helpful. Thus, these students could benefit from instruction on to how to better use these tools, and all students would benefit from faculty making greater use of newer teaching tools.



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Last modified 6 January 2012