Articles & Chapters


Carpenter, S., Brauer, M., & Niedenthal, P. (in press). Did rural resentment of government employees elect Donald Trump?Journal of Elections, Public Opinion and Parties.

Douglas, B. D., & Brauer, M. (in press). Gamification to prevent climate change: A review of games and apps for sustainabilityCurrent Opinion in Psychology.

Ho, P., Chen, K., Shao, A., Bao, L., Ai, A., Tarfa, A., Brossard, D., Brown, L., & Brauer, M. (in press). A mixed-method study of public perception on social distancing: Integrating qualitative and computational analyses for text dataJournal of Mixed Methods Research.

Morello, S. L., Rogus-Pulia, N., Branchaw, J. L., Brauer, M., Schwakopf, J. M., & Carnes, M. (in press). The influence of messaging on perceptions of careers in veterinary medicine: Do gender stereotypes matter? Journal of Veterinary Medical Education.

Moreu, G. & Brauer, M. (in press). Inclusive Teaching Practices in Post-Secondary Education: What Instructors Can Do to Reduce the Achievement Gap at U.S. Colleges. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education.

Brauer, M., Dumesnil, A., & Campbell, M. R. (2021). Using a social marketing approach to develop a pro-diversity interventionJournal of Social Marketing.

Campbell, M., & Brauer, M. (2021). Is discrimination widespread? Testing assumptions about bias on a university campus. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 150(4), 756-777.

Jiang, X., Hwang, J., Shah, D.V., Ghosh, S., & Brauer, M. (2021) News Attention and Social-Distancing Behavior Amid COVID-19: How Media Trust and Social Norms Moderate a Mediated RelationshipHealth Communication.

Jiang, X., Su, M., Hwang, J., Lian, R., Brauer, M, Kim, S., Shah, D. (2021). Polarization over vaccination: Ideological differences in Twitter expression about COVID-19 vaccine favorability and specific hesitancy concerns. Social Media and Society.

Moreu, G., Isenberg, N., & Brauer, M. (2021). How to Promote Diversity and Inclusion in Educational Settings: Behavior Change, Climate Surveys, and Effective Pro-Diversity Initiatives. Frontiers in Education, 6, 253-263.

Campbell, M. R. & Brauer, M. (2020). Incorporating social marketing insights into prejudice research: Advancing theory and demonstrating real-world applicationsPerspectives on Psychological Science, 15(3), 608-629.

Campbell, M.R., & Brauer, M. (2020). Social marketing campaigns to address social problems. In R. A. R. Gurung (Ed.), The Routledge Research Encyclopedia of Psychology Applied to Everyday Life. London, UK: Routledge.

Chen, K., Bao, L., Shao, A., Ho, P., Yang, S., Wirz, C.D., Brossard, D., Brauer, M., Brown, L.D. (2020). How public perceptions of social distancing evolved over a critical time period: communication lessons learnt from the American State of WisconsinJournal of Science Communication, 19(5), A11.

Folberg, A. M., Brauer, M., Ryan, C. S., & Hunt, J. S. (2020). Advancing stereotyping research: How and why to use linear mixed-effects models in gender stereotyping researchTesting, Psychometrics, and Methodology in Applied Psychology, 27, 407-431.

Isenberg, N. & Brauer, M. (2020). Commitment and consistency. In R. A. R. Gurung (Ed.), The Routledge Research Encyclopedia of Psychology Applied to Everyday Life. London, UK: Routledge.

Murrar, S., Campbell, M.R. & Brauer, M. (2020). Exposure to peers’ pro-diversity attitudes increases inclusion and reduces the achievement gap. Nature Human Behaviour, 4, 889–897.


Forscher, P. S., Cox, W. L., Brauer, M., & Devine, P. G. (2019). Little race or gender bias in an experiment of initial review of NIH R01 grant proposals. Nature Human Behavior, 3, 257-264.

Moisuc, A. & Brauer, M. (2019). Social norms are enforced by friends: The effect of relationship closeness on bystanders’ tendency to confront perpetrators of uncivil, immoral, and discriminatory behaviorsEuropean Journal of Social Psychology, 49(4), 824-830.

Murrar, S., & Brauer, M. (2019). Overcoming resistance to change: Using narratives to create more positive intergroup attitudes. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 28(2), 164-169.

Murrar, S., Isenberg, N., Niedenthal, P., & Brauer, M. (2019). Shame and guilt among ice hockey players in the penalty box. Motivation and Emotion, 43(6), 940-947.

Sommerfeldt, S. L., Schaefer, S. M., Brauer, M., Ryff, C., & Davidson, R. J. (2019). Individual differences in the association between subjective stress and heart rate are related to psychological and physical well-being. Psychological Science, 30(7) 1016-1029.

Brauer, M. (2018). Préjugés et discrimination [Prejudice and discrimination]Encyclopædia Universalis [en ligne], URL :

Brauer, M. (2018).  Repeated measures designs. In B.B. Frey (Ed). The SAGE Encyclopedia of Educational Research, Measurement, and Evaluation (1408-1409). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

Brauer, M. & Curtin, J.J. (2018). Linear mixed-effects models and the analysis of nonindependent data: A unified framework to analyze categorical and continuous independent variables that vary within-subjects and/or within-itemsPsychological Methods, 23(3), 389-411.

Campbell, M.R., & Brauer, M. (2018). Regression discontinuity analysis.  In B.B.Frey (Ed). The SAGE Encyclopedia of Educational Research, Measurement, and Evaluation (1388-1392). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

*Moisuc, A., Brauer, M., Fonseca, A., Chaurand, N., & Greitemeyer, T. (2018). Individual differences in social control: Who “speaks up” when witnessing uncivil, discriminatory, and immoral behaviors? British Journal of Social Psychology, 57(3), 524-546. *Named a Top 20 Most Downloaded Article for the British Journal of Social Psychology for 2017-2018.

Murrar, S., & Brauer, M. (2018). Entertainment education effectively reduces prejudice. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 21(7), 1053-1077.

Murrar, S. & Brauer, M. (2018). Mixed-model analysis of variance. In B.B. Frey (Ed). The SAGE Encyclopedia of Educational Research, Measurement, and Evaluation (1075-1078). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

Pier, E. L., Brauer, M., Filut, A., Kaatz, A., Raclaw, J., Nathan, M.
J., Ford, C. E., & Carnes, M. (2018). Low agreement among reviewers evaluating the same NIH grant applications. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115(12), 2952-2957.

Eriksson, K., Strimling, P., Andersson, P. A., Aveyard, M., Brauer, M., Gritskov, V., et al. (2017). Cultural universals and cultural differences in meta-norms about peer punishment. Management and Organization Review, 13(4), 851-870.

Gavac, S., Murrar, S., & Brauer, M. (2017). Group perception and social norms. In R. Summers (Ed.), Social Psychology: How Other People Influence Our Thoughts and Actions (333-359). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.

Murrar, S., Gavac, S., & Brauer, M. (2017). Reducing prejudice. In R. Summers (Ed.), Social Psychology: How Other People Influence Our Thoughts and Actions (361-383). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.

Pier, E. L., Raclaw, J., Kaatz, A., Brauer, M., Carnes, M., Nathan, M. J., & Ford, C. E. (2017). Your comments are meaner than your score”: Score calibration talk influences intra- and inter-panel variability during scientific grant peer review. Research Evaluation, 26(1), 1-14.

Ro, M., Brauer, M., Kuntz, K., Shukla, R., & Bensch, I. (2017). Making Cool Choices for sustainability: Testing the effectiveness of a game-based approach to promoting pro-environmental behaviorsJournal of Environmental Psychology, 53, 20-30.

Lai, C. K., Skinner, A. L., Cooley, E., Murrar, S., Brauer, M., Devos, T., et al. (2016). Reducing implicit racial preferences II – Intervention effectiveness across time. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 145, 1001-1016.

Simao, C. & Brauer, M. (2015). Beliefs about group malleability and out‐group attitudes: The mediating role of perceived threat in interactions with out‐group members. European Journal of Social Psychology45(1), 10-15.

Garcia-Marques, L., Garcia-Marques, T., & Brauer, M. (2014). Buy three but get only two: The smallest effect in a 2 × 2 ANOVA is always uninterpretable. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21(6), 1415-1430.

Rychlowska, M., Korb, S., Brauer, M., Droit-Volet, S., Augustinova, M., Zinner, L., & Niedenthal, P. M. (2014). Pacifiers disrupt adults’ responses to infants’ emotions. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 36(4), 299-308.

Er-rafiy, A., & Brauer, M. (2013). Modifying perceived variability: Four laboratory and field experiments show the effectiveness of a ready-to-be-used prejudice intervention. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 43, 840-853.

Er-rafiy, A., & Brauer, M. (2013). Promouvoir la diversité intragroupe: Une nouvelle méthode de réduction de la discrimination [Promoting intra-group diversity: A new method to reduce discrimination]. In A. Ghouati and E. Agbessi (Eds.), Diversité et innovation en milieu socioprofessionnels [Diversity and Innovation in professional settings] (pp. 33-42). Clermont-Ferrand, France: Presses universitaires Blaise-Pascal.

Fonseca, A., & Brauer, M., Moisuc, A., & Nugier, A. (2013). Cognitive load causes people to react ineffectively to others’ norm transgressions. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 43, 1518-1527.

Font, H., & Brauer, M. (2013). La cognition sociale [Social Cognition]. In L. Bégue and O.  Desrichard (Eds.), Psychologie Sociale: La nature sociale de l’être humain. Bruxelles, Belgium: DeBoeck.

Badea, C., Brauer, M., & Rubin, M. (2012). The effects of winning and losing on perceived group variability. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48(5), 1094-1099.

Brauer, M. (2012). Comment lutter contre les incivilités [How to fight against incivilities]. Cerveau & Psycho, 8, 66-70.

Brauer, M., & Er-rafiy, A., Kawakami, K., & Phills, C. E. (2012). Describing a group in positive terms reduces prejudice less effectively than describing it in positive and negative terms. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 757-761.

Er-rafiy, A., & Brauer, M. (2012). Increasing perceived variability reduces prejudice and discrimination: Theory and application. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 6(12), 920-935.

Kamiejski, R., Guimond, S., De Oliveira, P., Er-Rafiy, A., & Brauer, M. (2012). Le modèle républicain d’intégration: implications pour la psychologie des relations entre groupes. L’année psychologique, (112), 51-85.

Niedenthal, P. M., Augustinova, M., Rychlowska, M., Droit-Volet, S., Zinner, L., & Brauer, M. (2012). Negative relations between pacifier use and emotional competence. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 34, 387–394.

Niedenthal, P. M., & Brauer, M. (2012). Social functionality of human emotionAnnual review of psychology63, 259-285.

Brauer, M. (2011). Femmes sous influence [Women under influence]. Cerveau & Psycho, 43, 41-45.

Brauer, M., & Er-rafiy, A. (2011). Increasing perceived variability reduces prejudice and discrimination. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47, 871-877.

Musca, S. C., Kamiejski, R., Nugier, A., Méot, A., Er-rafiy, A., & Brauer, M. (2011). Data with hierarchical structure: Impact of intraclass correlation and sample size on Type-I error. Frontiers in Quantitative Psychology and Measurement, 2, Art. 74, 1-6.

Brauer, M., & Chaurand (2010).Descriptive norms, prescriptive norms, and social control: An intercultural comparison of people’s reaction to uncivil behaviors. European Journal of Social Psychology, 40, 490-499.

Er-rafiy, A., & Brauer, M. (2010). L’effet bénéfique de l’augmentation de la variabilité perçue sur la réduction des préjugés et de la discrimination [The beneficial effect of increasing perceived variability on the reduction of prejudice and discrimination]. L’Année Psychologique, 110, 103-125.

Er-rafiy, A., Brauer, M., & Musca, S. (2010).On reducing prejudice and discrimination: Methodological considerations and empirical field experiments. Revue Internationale de Psychologie Sociale, 23, 57-95.

Greitemeyer, T., Osswald, S., & Brauer, M. (2010). Playing prosocial video games increases empathy and decreases schadenfreude. Emotion, 10, 796-802.


Nugier, A., Niedenthal, P. M., & Brauer, M. (2009). Influence de l’appartenance groupale sur les reactions émotionnelles au contrôle social informel [The influence of group membership on emotional reactions to social control]. L’Année Psychologique, 109, 61-81.

Rohmann, A., Niedenthal, P. M., Brauer, M., Castano, E., & Leyens, J. Ph. (2009).The attribution of primary and secondary emotions to the in-group and to the out-group. The case of equal status countries. Journal of Social Psychology, 149, 709-730.

Sacchi, S., Castano, E., & Brauer, M. (2009). Perceiving one’s nation: Entitativity, agency, and security in the international arena. International Journal of Psychology, 44, 321-332.

Brauer, M., & Landry, M. (2008). Un ministre peut-il tomber enceinte? L’impacte du générique masculin sur les représentations mentales [Can a secretary of state become pregnant? The impact of the generic masculine on mental representations]. L’Année Psychologique, 108, 243-272.

Chappe, B., & Brauer, M. (2008). Les stéréotypes et la variabilité perçue dans les groupes: Etat des lieux et enjeux [Stereotypes and perceived variability in groups: State of the research and current issues]. L’Année Psychologique, 108, 133-167.

Chaurand, N., & Brauer, M. (2008a). What Determines Social Control? People’s Reactions to Counternormative Behaviors in
Urban EnvironmentsJournal of Applied Social Psychology, 38, 1689-1715.

Chaurand, N., & Brauer, M. (2008b). La déviance [Deviance]. Revue électronique de Psychologie Sociale, 3, 9-23.

Klein, O., Tindale, S., & Brauer, M. (2008). The consensualization of stereotypes in small groups.  In Y. Kashima, K. Fiedler, and P. Freytag (Eds.), Stereotype dynamics: Language-based approaches to the formation, maintenance, and transformation of stereotypes (pp. 263-292). New York, NY, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Chaurand, N., & Brauer, M. (2007). Applications sociétales de la psychologie sociale [Societal applications of social psychology]. In A. Trognon and M. Bromberg (Eds.), Psychologie sociale et ressources humaines [Social psychology and human resources] (pp. 225-242). Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.

Nugier, A., Niedenthal, P., Brauer, M., & Chekroun, P. (2007). Moral and angry emotions provoked by informal social control. Cognition & Emotion, 21, 1699-1720.

Bourhis, R., & Brauer, M. (2006). Special issue: Notes concerning the EJSP thematic issue on ‘social power’. European Journal of Social Psychology, 36, 433-434.

Brauer, M., & Bourhis, R. Y. (2006). Social power. European Journal of Social Psychology, 36, 601-616.

Brauer, M. (2005). Préjugés et stéréotypes [Prejudice and stereotypes]. In M. Borlandi, R. Boudon, M. Cherkaoui, et B. Valade (Eds.), Dictionnaire de la Pensée Sociologique. (pp. 571-572). Paris, France: Presses Universitaires de France.

Brauer, M. (2005). Stéréotypes et rapports de domination [Stereotypes and power relationships]. Cerveau & Psycho, 13, 24-28

Brauer, M., & Chekroun, P. (2005). The relationship between perceived violation of social norms and social control: Situational factors influencing the reaction to deviance. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 35, 1519-1539.

Brauer, M., & McClelland, G. H. (2005). L’utilisation des contrastes dans l’analyse des données: Comment tester des hypothèses spécifiques dans la recherche en psychologie? [The use of contrasts in data analyses: How should one test specific hypotheses in psychological research? ]. L’Année Psychologique, 105, 273-305.

Mondillon, L., Niedenthal, P. M., Brauer, M., Rohmann, A., Dalle, N., & Uchida, Y. (2005). Beliefs about power and its relation to emotional experience: A comparison of Japan, France, Germany, and the United States. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 1112-1122.

Brauer, M. (2004). Les incivilités, un indicateur social [Incivilities: A social indicator]. Cerveau & Psycho, 8, 12-16.

Brauer, M., Chambres, P., Niedenthal, P. M., & Chatard-Pannetier, A. (2004). The relationship between expertise and evaluative extremity: The moderating role of experts’ task characteristics. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86, 5-18.

Brauer, M., Martinot, D., & Ginet, M. (2004). Current tendencies and future challenges for social psychologists. Current Psychology of Cognition, 22, 537-558.

Chappe, B., Brauer, M., & Castano E. (2004). Advantaged groups are more variable than disadvantaged groups: The case of preferences and habits. Current Psychology of Cognition, 22, 407-425.

Chekroun, P., & Brauer, M. (2004). Contrôle social et effet spectateur: L’impact de l’implication personnelle [Social control and the spectator effect: The impact of personal implication]. L’Année Psychologique, 104, 83-102.

Ginet, M., Martinot, D., & Brauer, M. (2004). The individual as a group member: Stereotypes and prejudice in an intergroup context. Current Psychology of Cognition, 22, 379-386.

Martinot, D., Brauer, M., Ginet, M (2004). The self in experimental social psychology: Multiple theoretical approaches to a complex phenomenon. Current Psychology of Cognition, 22, 105-116.

Mondillon, L., Dalle, N., Niedenthal, P. M., Brauer, M. (2004). Emotions et pouvoir : Une étude interculturelle [Emotions and power: An intercultural study]. Microscoop, 44, 10-11.

Brauer, M., Abric, J. C., Drozda-Senkowska, E., Lemaire, P., Lorenzi-Cioldi, F., Niedenthal, P. M., Sanitioso, R. B., Schadron, G., Steiner, D., & Yzerbyt, V. (2003). Doctoral training in the French-speaking countries of Europe: Objectives and suggestions for improvement. European Psychologist, 8, 9-17.

Brauer, M., Judd, C. M., & Thompson, M. S. (2003). The acquisition, transmission, and discussion of social stereotypes: Influences of communication on group perceptions. In V. Yzerbyt, O. Corneille, et C. M. Judd (Eds.), The psychology of group perception: Contributions to the study of homogeneity, entititavity, and essentialism. (pp. 237-255). New York, NY: Psychology Press.

Brauer, M. (2002). L’analyse des variables indépendantes continues et catégorielles: Alternatives à la dichotomisation [The analysis of continuous and categorical independent variables: Alternatives to dichotomisation]. L’Année Psychologique, 102, 449-484.

Brauer, M. (2002). Processus identitaires et image du soi: La cas de l’Auvergne [Identity processes and self-image: The case of Auvergne]. In D. Martin (Ed.), L’identité de l’Auvergne : Mythe ou réalité historique? [The identity of Auvergne: Myth or historical reality?] (pp. 695-704). Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.

Chatard-Pannetier, A., Brauer, M., Chambres, P., & Niedenthal, P. M. (2002). Représentation, catégorisation et évaluation : Différences entre experts et novices dans le domaine des meubles d’antiquité [Representation, categorisation, and evaluation: Differences between experts and novices in the domain of antique furniture]. L’Année Psychologique, 102, 423-448.

Chekroun, P., & Brauer, M. (2002). The bystander effect and social control behavior: The effect of the presence of others on people’s reactions to norm violations. European Journal of Social Psychology, 32, 853-867.

Guinote, A., Judd, C. M., Brauer, M. (2002). Effects of power on perceived and objective group variability: Evidence that more powerful groups are more variable. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 708-721.

Niedenthal, P. M., Brauer, M., Robin, L., & Innes-Ker, A. H. (2002). Adult attachment and the perception of facial expression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 419-433.

Brauer, M. (2001).Intergroup perception in the social context: The effects of social status and group membership on outgroup homogeneity and ethnocentrism.Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 37, 15-31.

Brauer, M. (2001). Les statistiques et les fours à chaleur tournante: Un outil plutôt qu’une finalité en soi [Statistics and convection ovens: A tool rather than a goal in and of itself].Les Cahiers Internationaux de Psychologie Sociale, 51-52, 103-108.

Brauer, M., Abric, J. C., de la Haye, A. M., Drozda-Senkowska, E., Lorenzi-Cioldi, F., Niedenthal, P. M., Sanitioso, R. B., Schadron, G., Steiner, D., & Yzerbyt, V. (2001). La formation doctorale en psychologie sociale dans les pays francophones [The training of social psychology graduate students in francophone countries]. Les Cahiers Internationaux de Psychologie Sociale, 51-52, 95-102.

Brauer, M., Judd, C. M., & Jacquelin, V. (2001). The communication of social stereotypes: The effects of group discussion and information distribution on stereotypic appraisals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 463-475.

Niedenthal, P. M., Brauer, M., Halberstadt, J. B., & Innes-Ker, A. H. (2001). When did her smile drop? Facial mimicry and the influences of emotional state on the detection of change in emotional expression. Cognition and Emotion, 15, 853 – 864.

Brauer, M. (2000). L’identification des processus médiateurs dans la recherche en psychologie [The identification of mediating processes in psychological research]. L’Année Psychologique, 100, 661-681.

Brauer, M., & Judd, C. M. (2000). Defining variables in relationship to other variables: When interactions suddenly turn out to be main effects. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 36, 410-423.

Brauer, M., Niedenthal, P. M., & Chambres, P. (2000). La relation entre l’expertise et l’extrémisme évaluatif dans un système pluripartite [The relationship between expertise and extremity in a multi-party system]. Les Cahiers Internationaux de Psychologie Sociale, 45, 77-84.

Brauer, M., Wasel, W., Niedenthal, P. M. (2000). Implicit and explicit components of prejudice. Review of General Psychology, 4, 79-101


Brauer, M. (1998). Stroop interference in bilinguals: The role of similarity between the two languages. In A. F. Healy and L. E. Bourne (Eds.), Foreign language learning: Psycholinguistic studies on training and retention (pp. 317-337). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Brauer, M., Judd, C. M., & Gliner, M. D. (1998). L’influence de la verbalisation répétée sur la polarisation des attitudes [The influence of repeated verbalization on the polarization of attitudes]. In J. L. Beauvois, R. V. Joule, and J. M. Monteil (Eds.), Perspectives cognitives et conduites sociales [Cognitive perspectives and social behavior] (Vol. 6). Neuchâtel: Delachaux et Niestlé.

Charbonnier, E., Huguet, P., Brauer, M., & Monteil, J. M. (1998). Social loafing and self-beliefs: People’s collective effort depends on the extent to which they distinguish themselves as better than others. Social Behavior and Personality, 26, 329-340.

Brauer, M. (1997). L’exactitude de la perception [The accuracy of perception]. In J. P. Leyens and J. L. Beauvois (Eds.), La psychologie sociale – Tome III: L’ère de la cognition [Social psychology – Volume III: The era of cognition] (pp. 145-157). Grenoble: Presses Universitaires de Grenoble.

Brauer, M. & Judd, C. M. (1996). Group polarization and repeated attitude expressions: A new take on an old topic. In W. Stroebe and M. Hewstone (Eds.), European Review of Social Psychology (Vol. 7, pp. 174-207), Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons.

Brauer, M., & Judd, C. M. (1996). The effects of repeated expressions on behavioral extremity. International Review of Social Psychology, 9, 7-24.

Brauer, M., Judd, C. M., & Gliner, M. D. (1995). The effects of repeated attitude expressions on attitude polarization during group discussions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 1014-1029.

Judd, C. M. & Brauer, M. (1995). Repetition and evaluative extremity. In R. E. Petty and J. A. Krosnick (Eds.), Attitude Strength: Antecedents and Consequences (pp. 43-71). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Judd, C. M., Park, B., Ryan, C. S., Brauer, M, & Kraus, S. L. (1995). Stereotypes and ethnocentrism: Interethnic perceptions of African American and White American college samples. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 460-481.

Downing, J. A., Judd, C. M., & Brauer, M. (1992). Effects of repeated expressions on attitude extremity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 17-29.